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Marvel Classic Legends SPIDER MAN Todd McFarlane 6 Figure NIP yellowing retired
Marvel Classic Legends SPIDER MAN Todd McFarlane 6 Figure NIP yellowing retired
$649.00
Marvel Universe lot of 3827 comic book double packs 11 single packs NIP
Marvel Universe lot of 3827 comic book double packs 11 single packs NIP
$500.00
NIP Marvel Select UNMASKED DEADPOOL and NO HELMET MAGNETO Variant Figures RARE
NIP Marvel Select UNMASKED DEADPOOL and NO HELMET MAGNETO Variant Figures RARE
$249.49
HUGE Lot of 12 MARVEL LEGENDS New NIP Series 2 Galactus Misprint Hulk + More
HUGE Lot of 12 MARVEL LEGENDS New NIP Series 2 Galactus Misprint Hulk + More
$199.99
SECRET WARS Wolverine and his secert shield MARVEL SUPER HEREOS MATTEL 1984 NIP
SECRET WARS Wolverine and his secert shield MARVEL SUPER HEREOS MATTEL 1984 NIP
$188.88
Marvel Legends rare variant white HAND NINJA DUM DUM DUGAN retired NIP bad box
Marvel Legends rare variant white HAND NINJA DUM DUM DUGAN retired NIP bad box
$128.00
Marvel universe LOT NIP htf cable w Baby angel  ronin varient and much more
Marvel universe LOT NIP htf cable w Baby angel ronin varient and much more
$135.00
Marvel The Incredible Hulk Movie Shield Smash Hulk Action Figure NIP Legends
Marvel The Incredible Hulk Movie Shield Smash Hulk Action Figure NIP Legends
$119.99
MARVEL UNIVERSE LOT of 2 Human Torch Variant light  dark BLUE Series 1 011 NIP
MARVEL UNIVERSE LOT of 2 Human Torch Variant light dark BLUE Series 1 011 NIP
$99.00
Marvel Select Ultimate Venom Rare with Peter Parker OOP NIP Diamond Select
Marvel Select Ultimate Venom Rare with Peter Parker OOP NIP Diamond Select
$89.99
MARVEL SUPER HEROES SECRET WARS SPIDER MAN FIGURE NIP
MARVEL SUPER HEROES SECRET WARS SPIDER MAN FIGURE NIP
$100.00
Marvel Select Spider Woman Action Figure Highly Detailed Base NIP
Marvel Select Spider Woman Action Figure Highly Detailed Base NIP
$79.99
MARVEL LEGENDS GIANT MAN SERIES SENTRY  SABRETOOTH MIP TOY BIZ NRFP NEW NIP
MARVEL LEGENDS GIANT MAN SERIES SENTRY SABRETOOTH MIP TOY BIZ NRFP NEW NIP
$73.24
Marvel Legends LOT Mr Fantastic Human Torch The Thing MOC NIP
Marvel Legends LOT Mr Fantastic Human Torch The Thing MOC NIP
$72.00
MARVEL LEGEND BAF CLASSIC GREEN HULK FIGURE VARIANT FIN FANG FOOM SERIES NIP
MARVEL LEGEND BAF CLASSIC GREEN HULK FIGURE VARIANT FIN FANG FOOM SERIES NIP
$57.95
Marvel Legends Spider Man Infinite Series Spider Woman  Boomerang Figures NIP
Marvel Legends Spider Man Infinite Series Spider Woman Boomerang Figures NIP
$59.99
Marvel Select Emma Frost Rare White Queen OOP NIP Diamond Select
Marvel Select Emma Frost Rare White Queen OOP NIP Diamond Select
$54.99
2002 Marvel Spider Man Green Goblin Talking Figurine 9 Tall NIP
2002 Marvel Spider Man Green Goblin Talking Figurine 9 Tall NIP
$60.00
Marvel Incredible Hulk Movie Power Punch Hulk Action Figure w Police Car NIP
Marvel Incredible Hulk Movie Power Punch Hulk Action Figure w Police Car NIP
$59.99
Marvel The Incredible Hulk Movie Mega Clap Hulk Action Figure NIP Legends
Marvel The Incredible Hulk Movie Mega Clap Hulk Action Figure NIP Legends
$59.99
Marvel Legends MODOK Captain Marvel NIP AVENGERS XMEN
Marvel Legends MODOK Captain Marvel NIP AVENGERS XMEN
$59.99
Marvel Legends Series III Wolverine NIP
Marvel Legends Series III Wolverine NIP
$49.99
MARVEL UNIVERSE TRU 70 Years YELLOW Daredevil STEALTH Iron Man SILVER SURFER NIP
MARVEL UNIVERSE TRU 70 Years YELLOW Daredevil STEALTH Iron Man SILVER SURFER NIP
$49.95
MARVEL SUPERHERO SQUAD MYSTIQUE WEAPON X SHS NIP VHTF 2 Pack Logan Discontinued
MARVEL SUPERHERO SQUAD MYSTIQUE WEAPON X SHS NIP VHTF 2 Pack Logan Discontinued
$49.00
MARVEL UNIVERSE Series 2 The Thing 1st run light blue variant fantastic four NIP
MARVEL UNIVERSE Series 2 The Thing 1st run light blue variant fantastic four NIP
$50.00
MARVEL SPIDERMAN VENOM MOTORIZED HYDRO JET TOY BIZ ACTION FIGURE NIP
MARVEL SPIDERMAN VENOM MOTORIZED HYDRO JET TOY BIZ ACTION FIGURE NIP
$55.25
LOT OF TWO BLADE  Dr DOOM 10 Figure TOY BIZ MARVEL NIP
LOT OF TWO BLADE Dr DOOM 10 Figure TOY BIZ MARVEL NIP
$55.00
MARVEL LEGENDS AMAZING SPIDERMAN 2 BLACK KAT FIGURE NIP GREEN GOBLIN
MARVEL LEGENDS AMAZING SPIDERMAN 2 BLACK KAT FIGURE NIP GREEN GOBLIN
$54.99
MARVEL LEGENDS AMAZING SPIDERMAN 2 CARNAGE FIGURE NIP GREEN GOBLIN
MARVEL LEGENDS AMAZING SPIDERMAN 2 CARNAGE FIGURE NIP GREEN GOBLIN
$54.99
MARVEL LEGENDS TASKMASTER MVC3 NIP AVENGERS X MEN
MARVEL LEGENDS TASKMASTER MVC3 NIP AVENGERS X MEN
$54.99
Marvel Universe SDCC 2009 Exclusive Captain America Black  White NIP avengers
Marvel Universe SDCC 2009 Exclusive Captain America Black White NIP avengers
$39.90
Marvel Avengers Infinite Wave 1 PLATINUM WASP universe Chase NIP in hand VHTF
Marvel Avengers Infinite Wave 1 PLATINUM WASP universe Chase NIP in hand VHTF
$39.90
MARVEL LEGENDS MOJO Series 1ST APPEARANCE IRON MAN SILVER NIP X MEN
MARVEL LEGENDS MOJO Series 1ST APPEARANCE IRON MAN SILVER NIP X MEN
$40.00
MARVEL IRON MAN Concept IN CAPTAIN AMERICA ARMOR LEGENDS 3 NIP
MARVEL IRON MAN Concept IN CAPTAIN AMERICA ARMOR LEGENDS 3 NIP
$49.99
Marvel Universe Marvel Knights Daredevil 10 Action Figure NIP Toy Biz 48988
Marvel Universe Marvel Knights Daredevil 10 Action Figure NIP Toy Biz 48988
$39.99
Marvel Super Hero Squad Falcon w bird  Hulk 2pk NEWNIP US Seller Fast Ship
Marvel Super Hero Squad Falcon w bird Hulk 2pk NEWNIP US Seller Fast Ship
$49.88
Marvel Diamond Select Wolverine NIP
Marvel Diamond Select Wolverine NIP
$35.00
Marvel Diamond Select THOR NIP
Marvel Diamond Select THOR NIP
$35.00
Marvel Diamond Select THING NIP
Marvel Diamond Select THING NIP
$35.00
Marvel Universe The Spot Toy Biz 48871 NIP 1998
Marvel Universe The Spot Toy Biz 48871 NIP 1998
$34.99
MARVEL UNIVERSE 375 THANOS  ADAM WARLOCK GREATEST BATTLES COMIC 2 PACK NIP
MARVEL UNIVERSE 375 THANOS ADAM WARLOCK GREATEST BATTLES COMIC 2 PACK NIP
$39.99
Marvel Universe Spider Man 2099 Action Figure 10 NIP Toy Biz Comics
Marvel Universe Spider Man 2099 Action Figure 10 NIP Toy Biz Comics
$45.99
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL STORM w MOHAWK BATTLE BLASTERS ACTION FIGURE NIP NM
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL STORM w MOHAWK BATTLE BLASTERS ACTION FIGURE NIP NM
$39.99
MARVEL LEGENDS UNIVERSE IRONMAN SET MARK 42 IRON PATRIOT ULTRON NIP INFINITE SER
MARVEL LEGENDS UNIVERSE IRONMAN SET MARK 42 IRON PATRIOT ULTRON NIP INFINITE SER
$32.99
NIP Marvel Universe Action Figure Man Spider Clip On Restraints 1997 Toy Biz
NIP Marvel Universe Action Figure Man Spider Clip On Restraints 1997 Toy Biz
$34.95
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL BEAST BATTLE BLASTERS ACTION FIGURE X Men NIP NM MINT
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL BEAST BATTLE BLASTERS ACTION FIGURE X Men NIP NM MINT
$35.99
HTF Marvel Universe BLUE  GREEN ABOMINATIONS 4 SERIES 5 19 HTF PAIR NIP
HTF Marvel Universe BLUE GREEN ABOMINATIONS 4 SERIES 5 19 HTF PAIR NIP
$34.00
Marvel Legends Series 5 Sabretooth MIP Figure MOC NIP
Marvel Legends Series 5 Sabretooth MIP Figure MOC NIP
$41.40
MARVEL LEGENDS APOCALYPSE SERIES MASKED WOLVERINE FIGURE NIP TOYBIZ W BLUE LEG
MARVEL LEGENDS APOCALYPSE SERIES MASKED WOLVERINE FIGURE NIP TOYBIZ W BLUE LEG
$29.95
Marvel Secret Wars Magneto 4 Inch Figure NIP
Marvel Secret Wars Magneto 4 Inch Figure NIP
$35.00
MARVEL SELECT THOR THE DARK WORLD JANE FOSTER 7 ACTION FIGURE NIP
MARVEL SELECT THOR THE DARK WORLD JANE FOSTER 7 ACTION FIGURE NIP
$39.99
MARVEL LEGENDS SCARLET WITCH NIP X MEN DAYS OF FUTURE PAST
MARVEL LEGENDS SCARLET WITCH NIP X MEN DAYS OF FUTURE PAST
$39.99
Marvel Universe Daredevil 10 Action Figure NIP Toy Biz 48988 Lot 2
Marvel Universe Daredevil 10 Action Figure NIP Toy Biz 48988 Lot 2
$29.99
Marvel Universe TONY STARK Transforming Armor Action Toybiz RARE Iron Man NIP
Marvel Universe TONY STARK Transforming Armor Action Toybiz RARE Iron Man NIP
$39.95
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL FUTURE APOCALYPSE MISSLE FLYERS ACTION FIGURE NIP NM
RARE 1997 TOY BIZ MARVEL FUTURE APOCALYPSE MISSLE FLYERS ACTION FIGURE NIP NM
$29.99
HTF 1995 TOY BIZ MARVEL X Men 2099 MEANSTREAK w Variant ACTION FIGURE NIP
HTF 1995 TOY BIZ MARVEL X Men 2099 MEANSTREAK w Variant ACTION FIGURE NIP
$29.99
1994 Marvel Toy Biz Spiderman 10 Kraven Action Figure NIP Deluxe Editon
1994 Marvel Toy Biz Spiderman 10 Kraven Action Figure NIP Deluxe Editon
$24.99
X 23 Toy Biz Marvel Legends BAF Apocalypse Series Black VARIANT NIP
X 23 Toy Biz Marvel Legends BAF Apocalypse Series Black VARIANT NIP
$24.99
MARVEL Iron Man Arc FX Repulsor NIP working lights sound Cosplay costume
MARVEL Iron Man Arc FX Repulsor NIP working lights sound Cosplay costume
$19.90
7 Marvel Select Captain Marvel Action Figure NIP
7 Marvel Select Captain Marvel Action Figure NIP
$24.75
7 Marvel Select Spider Man Action Figure NIP
7 Marvel Select Spider Man Action Figure NIP
$24.75
X MEN The Movie Marvel Comics Action Figure Halle Berry as STORM NIP
X MEN The Movie Marvel Comics Action Figure Halle Berry as STORM NIP
$29.99
Marvel Superhero Squad Figure Ghost Rider  Punisher NIP LoOK Free Shipping
Marvel Superhero Squad Figure Ghost Rider Punisher NIP LoOK Free Shipping
$35.53
Marvel Thor Lightning Power Figure NIP Avengers Hasbro 2010 Dark World Sound
Marvel Thor Lightning Power Figure NIP Avengers Hasbro 2010 Dark World Sound
$35.00
Marvel Universe Cloak and Dagger figure set NIP
Marvel Universe Cloak and Dagger figure set NIP
$34.99
Lot of 6 NIP X Men Marvel Comics Action Figures New
Lot of 6 NIP X Men Marvel Comics Action Figures New
$34.99
MARVEL LEGENDS SERIES 1 CAPTAIN AMERICA FIGURE NIP MINI POSTER STAND 2002 RARE
MARVEL LEGENDS SERIES 1 CAPTAIN AMERICA FIGURE NIP MINI POSTER STAND 2002 RARE
$34.99
LONGSHOT Action Figure by Toy Biz 1993 NEW MOC NIP MARVELS UNCANNY X MEN
LONGSHOT Action Figure by Toy Biz 1993 NEW MOC NIP MARVELS UNCANNY X MEN
$16.99
Spider Man Classics Series 1 NEW Marvel Legends ToyBiz w Comic NIP
Spider Man Classics Series 1 NEW Marvel Legends ToyBiz w Comic NIP
$29.99
Marvel Universe Spider Man VS Green Goblin 2 figure pack NIP Target Exclusive
Marvel Universe Spider Man VS Green Goblin 2 figure pack NIP Target Exclusive
$29.99
1998 TOY BIZ MARVEL SPIDER MAN Red Skull ACTION FIGURE Captain America NIP
1998 TOY BIZ MARVEL SPIDER MAN Red Skull ACTION FIGURE Captain America NIP
$24.99
HTF 1993 TOY BIZ Marvel UNCANNY X MEN Cannonball PINK VARIANT ACTION FIGURE NIP
HTF 1993 TOY BIZ Marvel UNCANNY X MEN Cannonball PINK VARIANT ACTION FIGURE NIP
$29.99
Marvel Legends 12 Icons The Punisher NIP
Marvel Legends 12 Icons The Punisher NIP
$24.95
MR FANTASTIC Action Figure by Toy Biz 1992 NEW MOC NIP MARVEL SUPER HEROES
MR FANTASTIC Action Figure by Toy Biz 1992 NEW MOC NIP MARVEL SUPER HEROES
$14.99
NIP Marvel Super Heroes Figure US Agent w Shield Launcher 1994 Toy Biz
NIP Marvel Super Heroes Figure US Agent w Shield Launcher 1994 Toy Biz
$24.95
NIP Marvel Hall Of Fame Spider Man Figure 1996 Toy Biz Unopened
NIP Marvel Hall Of Fame Spider Man Figure 1996 Toy Biz Unopened
$24.95
NIP Marvel Legends Galactus Series THE INCREDIBLE HULK w bonus Comic Book RARE
NIP Marvel Legends Galactus Series THE INCREDIBLE HULK w bonus Comic Book RARE
$20.00
MARVEL LEGENDS Galactus Series DEATHLOK Action Figure w Comic NIP Toy Biz
MARVEL LEGENDS Galactus Series DEATHLOK Action Figure w Comic NIP Toy Biz
$19.99
Marvel Legends 6 Hawkeye Figure BAF Rocket Raccoon Series NIP Global Ship VHTF
Marvel Legends 6 Hawkeye Figure BAF Rocket Raccoon Series NIP Global Ship VHTF
$31.99
MARVEL LEGENDS SERIES IV ELEKTRA ACTION FIGURE MIP TOY BIZ NEW NIP NRFP
MARVEL LEGENDS SERIES IV ELEKTRA ACTION FIGURE MIP TOY BIZ NEW NIP NRFP
$31.94
Marvel Legends SENTRY Beard Variant Giant Man series MOC NIP
Marvel Legends SENTRY Beard Variant Giant Man series MOC NIP
$31.50
NEW Symbiote Strike Spiderman Action Figure Marvel Amazing Comic Series NIP
NEW Symbiote Strike Spiderman Action Figure Marvel Amazing Comic Series NIP
$24.94
Marvel Legends Luke Cage MOJO Series BUILD A FIGURE NIP W COMIC
Marvel Legends Luke Cage MOJO Series BUILD A FIGURE NIP W COMIC
$22.99
Vintage Marvel Fantastic 4 Clear Invisible Woman NIP Rolling Platform
Vintage Marvel Fantastic 4 Clear Invisible Woman NIP Rolling Platform
$24.99
1996 TOY BIZ MARVEL INCREDIBLE HULK Series 1 SHE HULK 6 ACTION FIGURE NIP
1996 TOY BIZ MARVEL INCREDIBLE HULK Series 1 SHE HULK 6 ACTION FIGURE NIP
$24.99
MARVEL LEGENDS SPIDER MAN 2 INFINITE SERIES MARVELS ELECTRO NIP W BONUS
MARVEL LEGENDS SPIDER MAN 2 INFINITE SERIES MARVELS ELECTRO NIP W BONUS
$26.99
2001 Marvel Universe Great est Battles Comic Packs Wolverine vs Hulk NIP
2001 Marvel Universe Great est Battles Comic Packs Wolverine vs Hulk NIP
$30.00
MARVEL LEGENDS Blackheart Onslaught Series Left Leg NIP MIP
MARVEL LEGENDS Blackheart Onslaught Series Left Leg NIP MIP
$18.00
ULTIMATE IRON MAN Unmasked Marvel Legends BAF Annihilus Series NIP
ULTIMATE IRON MAN Unmasked Marvel Legends BAF Annihilus Series NIP
$19.99
MARVEL CLASSICS CARNAGE W CAPTURE WEB LEGENDS SPIDERMAN ANIMATED SERIES NIP
MARVEL CLASSICS CARNAGE W CAPTURE WEB LEGENDS SPIDERMAN ANIMATED SERIES NIP
$29.99
SPIDER MAN COLLECTORS CLOCK 2003 MARVEL WITH WORKING LIGHTS NIP
SPIDER MAN COLLECTORS CLOCK 2003 MARVEL WITH WORKING LIGHTS NIP
$24.99
X Men Weapon X Action Figure Deluxe Edition 10 Toy Biz 1994 Marvel Comics NIP
X Men Weapon X Action Figure Deluxe Edition 10 Toy Biz 1994 Marvel Comics NIP
$29.99
X Men Deluxe Edition 10 Beast Action Figure Marvel Toy Biz 1994 NIP
X Men Deluxe Edition 10 Beast Action Figure Marvel Toy Biz 1994 NIP
$29.99
10 X MEN Metallic Mutant Deluxe Edition SABRETOOTH Marvel Toy Biz 1994 NIP
10 X MEN Metallic Mutant Deluxe Edition SABRETOOTH Marvel Toy Biz 1994 NIP
$29.99
Marvel Legends SASQUATCH White VARIANT Apocalypse Series Action Figure NIP
Marvel Legends SASQUATCH White VARIANT Apocalypse Series Action Figure NIP
$29.99
Marvel Thor The Mighty Avenger Lot Of 3 Action Figures New Sealed NIP Free Shipp
Marvel Thor The Mighty Avenger Lot Of 3 Action Figures New Sealed NIP Free Shipp
$29.99
NIP 2005 Toy Biz Marvel Fantastic 4 Flame On Human Torch w Light Sound
NIP 2005 Toy Biz Marvel Fantastic 4 Flame On Human Torch w Light Sound
$19.99
Marvel Select COLOSSUS Diamond Select Action Figure NIP 8 inch
Marvel Select COLOSSUS Diamond Select Action Figure NIP 8 inch
$19.99
TOY BIZ MARVEL SPIDER MAN TOMBSTONE w Collector Pin ACTION FIGURE NIP
TOY BIZ MARVEL SPIDER MAN TOMBSTONE w Collector Pin ACTION FIGURE NIP
$24.99
1995 TOY BIZ MARVEL X Men 2099 SKULLFIRE Variant ACTION FIGURE NIP nm MINT
1995 TOY BIZ MARVEL X Men 2099 SKULLFIRE Variant ACTION FIGURE NIP nm MINT
$24.99

SQUISHLAND City(12 count)
SQUISHLAND City(12 count)
Sale Price: $7.00
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Marvel ~ Captain America ~ Book of 300+ Assorted Stickers {Nip}
Marvel ~ Captain America ~ Book of 300+ Assorted Stickers {Nip}
Sale Price: $3.95
  Eligible for free shipping!
Availability: Usually ships in 1-2 business days

Description

9 SHEETS OF STICKERS 8 1/2" X 4" OVER 300 STICKERS NEW IN BOOK




Nip Marvel

Gabriel Garcia Marquez's `Del Amor y Otros Demonios' : An Unwritten History of a People and Land

Gabriel Garcia Marquez maintains that he writes history, not fiction, that his novels are about the unwritten history of his people and land.  Needless to say, the fantastical context in which his stories unfold, and which constantly defy readers' credulity, make the Columbian novelist's contention quite hard to accept.  How is it possible to read One Hundred Years of Solitude as the history of the Columbian banana massacres of 1928, or  Del Amor y Otros Demonios, as the history of colonialism and the true story of Saint Cajetan of Thiene and his well-recorded relation with the Augustinian nun, Laura Mignani?  Yet, Marquez has repeatedly affirmed that his works are historical, that they tell the history of events as they were seen, understood and remembered by those who lived through themOfficial Columbian, Latin American history, as Marquez has persistently and repeatedly maintained, is a watered down version of the truth; it is a history written by, and for, those in power, designed, not to preserve the truth but, to sustain the power holders of the present and preserve the legend and memory of those of the past.  Official history, within the parameters of such concerns, is a politically motivated re-telling of the truth which deliberately displaces the people, those who have lived through and experienced history and, challenges the national memory. As Marquez has often said, his works are designed to resurrect the true history, the version of history which official history has tried to bury.  As such, he encourages readers to approach his works as realistic and truthful renditions of historical events. In Del Amor y Otros Demonios, the focus of this research, Marquez quite openly demands this of his readers.  Just in case they fail to comprehend the narrative as the `true' history of the interrelationship between the church and colonialism, between religion and the immiseration of countless of innocents, he alternately alludes to and explicitly names real historical characters.  Few of his Latin American readers would not recognise Cayetano as a clear allusion to Saint Cajetan and, his protagonist's surname, Delaura, as a reminder of his relationship with Sister Laura Mignani; a relationship which is echoed by Cayetano and Sierva Maria's.

Should readers, despite their fantastical context and content, accept Marquez' narratives as history, which Shaw concedes they could very well be, they need to reserve judgement on the manner in which Marquez remembers, interprets and presents history. Indeed, Marquez does not simply engage in the transmission of an alternative version of history but deconstructs official history in the process.  His doing so, however, should not be interpreted as a disregard for, and a displacement of, fact but of the presentation of fact from within the magical realist context.  Although the presentation of fact through the medium of a magical realist narrative persistently challenges the reader's credulity, an analysis of the theoretical and definitional parameters of the genre, followed by a close textual analysis of Del Amor y Otros Demonios from within the matrix of magic realism, with specific focus on his treatment of place, dreams and memory, will lend to the conclusion that Marquez's narratives represent a history as remembered and told by the people; a history infused with myth and supposition but, a history nonetheless.

As a literary and artistic genre, magic realism is apparently plagued by its insistent use of supplementation as a literary strategy for the improvement of the realist text.  The boundaries framing realism so constrained many artists and burdened them with the nagging difficulty of how to compromise between realism and their own creative desires and inclinations that the movement towards magic realism was instigated.  Supposedly, this genre expresses both the seen and the unseen realities, the historical memories which make and shape a people and the myths and superstitions which dominate their worldview.  Magic realists contend that realism never allowed them the leeway to express reality's multiple dimensions, further asserting that, as a linguistic and literary medium, it constrained their creativity.  Magic realism supposedly overcomes realism's boundaries and limitations and seems to displace its predecessor's shortcomings through the conveyance of textual apparitions, ephemeral and ambiguous themes and images which cast a confusing and somewhat dark shadow over everyday life and its most mundane tasks.  The magic realist text is, itself, somewhat akin to a fantastical apparition which, even as readers recognize the magical imagination which informs it, detect its underlying realism.  In essence, the magic realist have been able to achieve this effect, have succeeded in enveloping readers in an alternate world where myth and history co-mingle and the boundaries between fact and fiction are fluid, because they have determinedly sought the overcoming of textual limitations.  Magic realists, in other words, and chief amongst them Jorge Luis Borges and Gabriel Garcia Marquez, have contributed to the supplemental discourse that is magic realism  through the infusion of  a sense of textual magic in their own narratives.

Although the rationale behind the term `magic realism' is evident from the above stated, it has been the subject of controversy and disagreement ever since it was first introduced by Franz Roh in the 1920s.  Referencing a "counter-movement" in art wherein "the charm of an object was rediscovered" by expanding the parameters of realism,magic realism eventually found its home among the Latin American writers.  Their almost instantaneous attraction to, and embrace of, magic realism was engendered by their conviction that they had finally found an artistic genre which allowed them the creative expression of the "marvellous reality" particular to their own culture, history and world view.

In order to better comprehend the implications of the asserted while, at the same time, contextualise magic realism vis-à-vis realism, it would be useful to define the latter in relation to the former.  According to Roh, realism's reliance on history was transformed into a dependency upon myth and legend by the magic realists; its mimetic style was replaced by both the fantastic and supplication; the familiarity which realism engenders among readers was displaced by de-familiarity within the context of magic realism; realism's empirical and logical perspective was, almost violently, set aside for mysticism and magic; realism's narrative style was replaced with meta-narration and its commitment to closure and reduction was  exchange for open-ended expansiveness; realism's naturalism became magic realism's romanticism and its proclivity for framing the narrative within a rational cause and effect structure was replaced with imagination and negative capability.  Indeed, the one appears the very antithesis of the other culminating in magic realism's transforming "daily life into eerie forms."

In tracing the rise of the genre in Latin America and, indeed, in defending its adoption by many of the continent's creative artists, Flores assets that it was engendered by the "effort to account for a narrative that could simply be considered fantastic." Magical realist narratives do "not depend either on natural or physical laws or on the unusual conception of the real in Western culture," because it is a text "in which the relations between incidents, characters, and settings could not be based upon or justified by their status within  the physical word or their normal acceptance by bourgeoisie mentality." Even while conceding to the fantastic within this genre, Luis Leal, however, maintains a distinction between fantastical literature and magic realism:

"El realismo mágico no puede ser identificada ni con literatura fantástica ni con literatura sicológica, pero tampoco con el surrealismo o la literatura hermética que describe Ortega.  Realismo mágico no se vale, como el sobrer-realismo, de motivos oníricos; tampoco desfigura la realidad o crea mundo imaginados, como lo bacín los escriben literatura fantástica o ciencia ficción; tampoco da importancia al análisis sicológico de los personajes, ya que no trata de explicar las motivaciones que los hacen actuar o que les prohíben expresarse."

The variances in boundaries only serve to exemplify the difficulties inherent in defining magic realism.  Indeed, unlike other genres, whether classicism, romanticism or realism, magic realism defies definitional delimitations, just as it does the persistent attempts of critics to pin it down.

Magic realism may be an autonomous and viable literary genre but the interrelationship between surrealism and magic realism has led to confusion regarding the boundaries between them, especially as magic realists have exhibited a proclivity towards the production of works which echo both.  Alejo Carpentier, one of the leading Latin American  magic realists, for example, can quite validly be categorised as a surrealist.  In his insistence upon the "marvellous American reality," Carpentier betrays the Latin American preference for an ontological outlook towards the textual enterprise, an outlook infused with both surrealism and magic realism. As Eschevvaria writes,

"The Latin American writer preferred to place himself on the far side of the borderline aesthetics described by Roh – on the side of the savage, of the believer, not on the ambiguous ground where miracles are justified by means of a reflexive act of perception, in which the consciousness of distance between the observer and the object, between the subject and that exotic other, generates estrangement and wonder."

Some, as Carpentier, have interpreted this borderline as a shared and fluid boundary with surrealism while others, such as Borges and Gabriel Garcia Marquez have interpreted it as an explicit demarcation between magic realism and surrealism.  Indeed, while Marquez succumbs to the concept of magic realism as fundamentally expressive of the inherent Latin American fantasia and, within the context of his narratives, constantly investigates and interrogates the very notion of the `real,' he departs from surrealism and, instead, embraces a super-realism which becomes his brand of magic realism.

As a magical realist who seeks the expression of the super-real, Marquez employs a wide array of supplemental strategies for the intensification of the textual forces which enter into the production of a narrative which totters between realism and fantasy; which expresses an unreal reality wherein fact becomes fiction and myth becomes history but which, paradoxically enough, allow the reader an identification of the real and draws him/her into the text by weaving a sense of familiarity, even as it repels him/her from the narrative through de-familiarity.  Consequently, when Shaw writes of Del Amor y Otros Demonios that "even if it is true, as [Marquez] has insisted […], that everything he has written is based on reality, we have to avoid jumping to conclusions about his treatment of  [reality].' We should not judge the text for what we may see as the distortion of reality and the deconstruction of history but need to evaluate it on its own terms, terms set by Marquez and by the genre which he embraced.  Illustrating the stated through an analytical discussion and textual analysis of Del Amor y Otros Demonios, with specific focus on the use of imagery, the extent to which Marquez creates a shadowy world of reality intermingled with fantasy, a world in which myth and history alternate complement and challenge one another, shall be exposed.

In immediate comparison to modern and post-modern literature wherein writers afford little time or space to the description of place, Gabriel Garcia Marquez devotes considerable time to the precise and articulate description of place.  Indeed, critics have maintained that Marquez-ian place is the focal point of his literary productions insofar as they play a profound role, not  in the delimitation of the story's locus but, in the development of plot, theme, character and, most importantly, the creation of symbols and myths. Del Amor y Otros Demonios exemplifies this wherein the aforementioned are expressed within the matrix of a complex interplay of multivalent narrative elements where images of place coalesce with visual-spatial imagery to produce a complex matrix of symbolic space which simultaneously defines and borders the narrative's ethical and affective values.

Telling the hi-story of the eighteenth century Marques de Casalduero's twelve-year old daughter, Sierva Maria de Todos los Angeles, Del Amor y Otros Demonios is, in essence, the story of  confused  familial and marital relations, distorted relations between man and religion and male and female.  It is, to a degree, an other-worldly narrative which manages to deeply shake and disturb readers because, within the context of its repulsive defamiliarisation, it is familiar.  The Marquez is described as follows:

"no daba señales de nada. Creció con signos ciertos de retraso mental, fue analfabeto hasta la edad de merecer, y no quería a nadie."

His wife, who had chased him prior to marriage for the sole purpose of having a child is "para atraparlo por vida,"and later, "se había borrada del munda por el abuso de la miel fermentada y las tabletas de cacao."Within the matrix of the described familial unit and the characters and relationships which dominate it, Sierva Maria is practically abandoned, and grows up in her father's courtyard among his African slaves, speaker their language and worships their gods.

One day, while visiting the market, Sierva is very slightly nipped in the ankle by a rabid dog.  The wound, nothing more than a scratch, heals but  the local Catholic bishop persuades the Marquez that his daughter is, indeed, infected with rabbis, and that the former is nothing other than a dreaded manifestation of demonic possession.  As don Torbio de Caceres y Virtudes tells the Marques, "entre las muchas astucias de demonio es muy frecuenté adoptar la apariencia de una enfermedad inmunda."Sierva Maria is subsequently locked up in the convent, in preparation for her exorcism.  There she meets the priest assigned to her exorcism and, unaccountably, the two fall in love.  Their affair, which in typical Marquez-ian fashion, is never consummated, is discovered and culminates in padre DeLaura's being defrocked, and subjected to a lifetime of service at the local leprosarium.   Trapped in a straitjacket, a shaved, purged and emaciated Sierva Maria endures five days of exorcism but tragically dies just before the sixth.  Within the context of the stultifying atmosphere of colonial Cartagena, described as " sumergida en su marasama de siglos," this fantastical, super-real tragedy unfolds in a triad of place, which arguably symbolize the trinity: the Casalduero mansion (the father), bishop Toribio de Caceres' palace (bishopp as son of God, the earthly, and distorted, embodiment of Christ  and his message); and the Convento de Santa Clara (the Holy Spirit) where, after enduring five days of intense torture (comparable to Christ's scourging) Sierva Maria's spirit is released.

Whereas the plot unfolds from without the Casalduero mansion, all of plot, theme and character development are inextricably linked to this particular locus.  As  readers discover, the mansion "había sido el orgullo de la cuidad hasta principios de siglo.  Ahora estaba arruinada y lóbrega, y parecía en estado de mudanza por los grandes espacios vacíos y las muchas cosas fuera de lugar … todo estaba saturado por el relente opresivo de la desidia y las tinieblas." The negative impression, communicated in the quoted passage, is  later fortified through repeated references to the mansion as "la tenebrosa mansión"and "la casa sórdida" to name but two examples.  In  various passages and phrases, such as the quoted, the mansion is depicted, not as an inanimate structure but as a dark force which not only casts a sinister shadow on all within it but, on its surroundings as well.  Indeed, by describing the house as sinister, sordid, tenebrous and lazy, to name but a few of the adjectives used, Marquez is effectively defying the reader's classic conceptualisation of mansions as brick, stone and mortar and  seeks a projection of the aforementioned as a sinister and autonomous entity whose tentacles spread to touch those around it with misfortune and ill-fate.  When Sierva Maria ventures just outside the house and is slightly nipped by a dog, setting in motion the tragedy which follows, the reader finds himself slowly descending into a state of belief; he finds his protective armour of disbelief gradually dissipating and begins to question, although hesitatingly, whether indeed, the house commands a sinister presence and  has the power to touch those in its vicinity with ill-fate.  Marquez is slowly drawing us into his world of magical realism.

That the mansion commands those within and without it, that it influences their psychological development, shapes their personality and determines their state of mind, is affirmed and reinforced through multiple passages in the narrative.  The way in which Bernarda and Ygnacio react to Servia Maria's troubles is communicated through their choice of dwelling within the mansion itself.  Ygancio, feeling that he is losing control of his family and life attempts to regain control through a failed attempt to assume control over the house, "ël marques … anuncio … su determinación de asumir con mano de Guerra las riendas de la casa."His life, which is wildly slipping out of his locus of control, is symbolically represented by the house which is, or has, similarly fallen from beyond his control.  Interestingly, however, in the quoted expression of his determination to regain control of his house, and by association, his life, military imagery is used, effectively depicting the house as a wild and fierce entity which has to be violently conquered.  Indeed, the linkage between both his house and his life slipping from beyond his control, reaffirms earlier suspicions that the mansion is exerting a dark and mysterious influence over events and once the house is conquered, the Marquez life will be, once again, ordered.  This is not an inanimate object but a dangerous and sinister entity.  Hence, the Marquez reacts to his daughter's troubles by inadvertently maintaining the mansion's culpability, seemingly believing that the resolution of the first lies in assuming control over the second.  Marquez is not only stretching the readers' imagination but is challenging us to enter into the narrative's superreal world and, in so doing, embrace Coleridge's `willing suspension of disbelief.'

Bernarda similarly reacts.  She initially attempts to distance herself from the troubling events which are unfolding by locking herself in her room, by isolating herself from her external surroundings.  It is a useless endeavour as the problem lies, not with the outside world but, with the house.  Therefore, she eventually leaves the mansion "para no volver."

Just in case readers fail to comprehend just how menacing a force the mansion is, Marquez suggests that the house murdered Sierva Maria's  mother, the Marquez' first wife.  One day, while on the asylum terrace, perfecting her musical skills as she is accustomed to doing, Dona Olalla is struck dead by a bolt of lightening.  In response, the Marqués "se refugio en la hamaca … bajo los naranjos del huerto."The house kills his first wife, drives his second wife away, destroys and kills his daughter and, quite literally, lays him, the Marques, on his back.  Hence, images of the reclining Marquez are repeated throughout the novel.

The mansion is not just the locus of action but a sinister and malevolent force whose decaying, dark and disordered nature influences the personalities and fate of those who dwell within it.  On the most elemental of levels, the decrepit mansion mirrors the decrepit Marquez and, as a symbol of colonial politico-economic power, is infused with multiple symbols and contrasting motifs.   Indeed, the mansion symbolises both exile and displacement, and freedom and enslavement, to name but two of those contrasting motifs.  More importantly, all of the mansion's inhabitants, the Marquez, his two wives and his daughter, undergo periods of voluntary and involuntary exile, as allowed or imposed upon them by the mansion itself.

The second locus of action, the palacio is as malevolent and shadowy as was the mansion.  Described as "el mas antiguo de la ciudad," it is comprised of " dos pisos de espacios enormes y en ruinas."  Its dark corridor, the palacio's main vein, is full of "hasta la fachada imponente de piedra labrada y sus portones de maderas enterizas revelaban los estragos del abandono." Full of dark, empty and uninhabited places, readers are told that "el resto del edificio eran once aposentos clausurados, donde se acumulaban los escombros de dos siglos." The palacio, therefore, is not only largely uninhabited and deserted but it repels life. Full of the rubbish of the centuries, it  embraces the dead, the rotting and the decaying while it repels life, vitality, the present and the young.  It should not be forgotten that the decision to exorcise Sierva Maria, to sap the life out of her, was made at the palacio and by its similarly decaying resident, the bishop.

Just as the mansion affected its inhabitants, the palacio affects its resident.  The bishop, like the Marquez, is seemingly controlled by his place of dwelling; its decaying and polluted air is mirrored within the depths of the bishop's very being and compels him to condemn life and love.  Furthermore, just like the mansion did with the Marquez, the palacio effectively drains the life and will out of the bishop and, quite literally, lays him on his back, whereby, in many of the scenes where he figures, the bishop is in a reclining position.

The palacio, just as the mansion, is not a mere inanimate dwelling but a dark and shadowy force which casts a sinister influence and effect upon those who reside within it and come into contact with it.  The palacio, quite literally, repels life and functions as the locus from which life is condemned and the young are claimed for torturous exorcisms.  Marquez does not give his readers the opportunity to ignore either locus or the comfort of regarding them as structures of mortar, stone and brick.  They are infused with a powerful and highly malevolent life force which affects the actions of their inhabitants and thus, makes them responsible for the tragedy of lost life and love which follows.

The third locus of action, the convento de Santa Clara, is where Sierva Maria finds both love and death.  The readers' initial impression of it is both negative and disturbing:

"Había relámpagos y truenos remotos en el horizonte, el cielo estaba encapotado, y el mar áspero.  A la vuelta de la esquina les salio al paso el conventote Santa Clara, blanco y solitario, con tres pisos de persianas azules sobre el muladar de una playa."

Again,

"Al final de todo, lo mas lejos posible, y dejado de la mano de Dios, había un pabellón solitario que durante sesenta y ocho anos sirvió de cárcel a la Inquisición, y seguía siéndolo para clarisas descarriadas.  Fue en la ultima celda de ese rincón de olvido donde encerraron a Sierva Maria …"

As evident in the quoted passages, the convent is depicted as a sinister force, overlooking the city below.  It is a fortress in which life is imprisoned and gradually drained.  Indeed, as it watches over the city, and observes the inhabitants below, it seemingly selects its sacrificial victims, drawing on their life force to retain its own vitality.  The passing historical reference to the Inquisition is highly disturbing, all the more so when Marquez reminds his readers that Sierva Maria is imprisoned in one of the convent's forgotten corners and will soon, in the name of religion, be subjected to the same torture and agonizing death that the Inquisition's victims had suffered centuries earlier.  In these passages and many others, the convent, thus, emerges as the penultimate force of darkness; a living entity which has, across the centuries, claimed countless of innocent lives for its own sustenance.  Sierva Maria is just one in the convent's long line of victims.

Sierva Maria attempts to challenge the convent by bringing life, love and light to its dark cells.  When padre Cayetano, her exorcist/inquisitor, first enters her cell, it "exhalo un vaho de podredumbre" as Sierva María was "generaba su propio muladar."However, she is the force of life and love in this place and soon, Padre Cayetano falls in love with her.  When that happens, the cell "ella mantenía la celda limpia y en orden para cuando el llegaba con la naturalidad del marido que volvía a casa." She affects a transformation in her surroundings and during the exorcism is, at one point, able to temporarily defeat the bishop, the senatado.  Indeed, she engages in a shouting match with the bishop, causing him to fall from his chair, although she is, hersekf, tied down, emaciated and terrified.  Servia Maria is able to temporarily halt the exorcism ritual, stay her own death: "se derrumbo de bruces, como un pescado en tierra, y la ceremonia termino con un estrépito colosal."

Sierva Maria battles the convent itself, the sinister force which it represents.  While she is ultimately loses the war, her love and life, she does win a couple of battles.  The interplay between the convent and Sierva Maria only confirms the reader's ever-deepening suspicions regarding this place; it is not an inanimate architectural structure but something immensely more sinister.  As he repeatedly does throughout the narrative, Marquez forces the reader to question the limits of his/her own conceptualisation of the real; to engage in the interrogation, not just of the concept but, of their own understanding of it.  Indeed, as occurs countless times throughout, he wretches away our disbelief and draws us into a world in which `unseen' realities are visibly, and disturbingly, clear.

Proceeding from the above, the reader can quite safely assume that places, as recalled and presented by Marquez, appear as the very antithesis of fact and history.  The sinister life given to the three places described, the three loci of the narrative's action, cannot be true and, to even suspect a grain of truth to any of this, the reader must do one of two things.  He/she must either suspend disbelief or make a distinction between the types of memories from which history is produced.  Both Bergson and Proust maintained that the memory which informs official history is distinct from that which informs works of fiction.  The one is a voluntary and conditioned memory, in which things are remembered sequentially while the other is an involuntary memory where things are remembered in a disjointed manner, often lending to the formation of remarkable associations between diverse events and the imposition of fantastical/mythical interpretations upon them. Marquez, similar to all magical realists, opts for involuntary memory, lending to the presentation of a history which defies the official national memory and the limits of our credulity.  Were readers, however, to suspend their disbelief and realise that Marquez' presentation of the three loci, and his projection of them as sinister beings as opposed to inanimate structure, mirrors the way in which involuntary memory informed the manner in which events were recollected and passed down across the generations, we may very well begin to understand that Marquez's presentation of place, as discussed above, is not as incredulous as it should be.

That Marquez's narrative and his presentation of reality, of fact, emerge from within the parameters of involuntary memory, infused with the earlier discussed elements of magical realism, is informed by involuntary memory and is affirmed through the dream image which occurs three times in the narrative.  This image, which appears to Delaura in the form of a dream, prior to his meeting with Sierva Maria, is immediately linked to the unfortunate young protagonist:

"Delaura había sonada que Sierva Maria estaba frente a la ventana de un campo nevado, arrancando y comiéndose una por una las uvas de un racimo que tenia en el regazo.  Cada uva que arrancaba retoñaba en seguida en el racimo.  En el sueno era evidente que la niña llevaba muchos anos frente a aquella ventana infinita tratando de terminar el racimo, y no tenia prisa, porque sabia que en la ultima uva estaba la muerte."

As is ultimately revealed, the window through which Sierva Maria looks out onto the frozen fields is the window of the Salamabca seminary from which Delaura and the bishop  used to, years earlier, look out of onto the same scene.  Later, when incarcerated in her cell awaiting her exorcism, Sierva Marie makes a passing remark which indicates that she has had that same vision/dream.  As she tells Delaura, "He conocido la nieve,"further explaining that in one of her dreams, "estaba frente a una ventana donde caía una Nevada intense, mientras ella arrancaba y se comía una por un alas uvas de un racimo que tenia en el regazo."The reader experiences an incomprehensible déjà vu; Sierva Maria is not only describing Delaura's dream image but is claiming it as her own, using many of the same words and descriptors which Delaura had earlier employed.  When the dream image reoccurs for the third and final time, it heralds Sierva Maria's imminent death:

"… volvio a sonar con la ventana de un campo nevado, donde Cayetano no estaba ni volveria a estar nuncia.  Tenia en el regazo un racimo de uvas doradas que volvian a retonar tan pronto como se las comia.  Pero esta vez las arrancaba una por una, sino de dos en dos, sin respirar apenas por las ansias de ganarle al racimo hasta la ultima uva."

Granted that in this version of the dream, as dreamt by Sierva Maria, there is a small variation on the original, the main point here is that dreams and images are co-mingling.  Delaura's dream is shared and repeated by Sierva Maria and, testing the limits of credulity even further, the place within which the dream unfolds is real for Delaura but imaginary for Sierva Maria.

This cannot be history and can hardly be categorized as factual or realistic yet, Marquez insists that, as with all his narratives, it is.  Indeed, he even frames the story within a factual context.  The Prologue is clearly dated 1949 and depicts the reporter/narrator as recounting his visit to the Santa Clara convent, which was being converted into a luxury hotel and there, witnessing the opening of crypts and being witness to an amazing discovery in one of them:

"… una cabellera viva de un color de cobre intenso se derramo fuera de la cripta.  El maestro de obra quiso sacarla por completa con la ayuda de sus oberos, y cuanto mas tiraban de ella mas larga y abundante parecía, hasta que salieron las ultimas hebras todavía prendidas a un cráneo de niña … extendida en el suelo, la caballera esplendida media veintidós metros con once centímetros."

The narrator then tells of a mythical tale his grandmother spoke of when he was a child; the legend  of  "una marquesita de doce anos cuya cabellera le arrastraba como una cola de novia, que había muerto de mal de rabia." The discovery made in the crypt puts a new twist on the legend.   The discovery is factual evidence that the grandmother's legend was not a mythical tale, after all, but history which, due to its incredulity, was told as fiction.

A new reporter, a source of authority and credibility, is the narrator of this fantastical tale; the reporter tells us that a corpse has spouted hair and that hair is a heavy mane of rich copper.  We begin to wonder whether, indeed, any of this can be true.  Throughout the narrative, this question constantly repeats itself, ultimately taking us to the point where we can no longer separate fact from fiction, history from myth.  Marquez insists that this is history and, as recounted, we disturbingly suspect that this may, indeed, be fact/history.

Throughout the narrative, history mingles with myth and facts become coterminous with history.  Shaw tells us that Marquez insists that he was writing facts and warns us against jumping to hasty conclusions regarding his treatment of them.  On the literary and theoretical levels, we understand that  history and facts were conveyed through the devices particular to magic realism.  On another level, however, we come to understand that reality is far more complex than we can ever imagine it and that history speaks only of the believable facts, and excludes those which the generations could find unbelievable.  As Shaw advices, no hasty conclusions regarding Marquez treatment of fact and history shall be made but we may, nonetheless, affirm that reality is like an iceberg whereby only an eight is visible to the naked eye, and the remainder is shrouded beneath icy and unfriendly deep waters.

 

 

Bibliography

Echevarria, Roberto Gonzales.   Alejo Carpentier.  Texas:  University of Texas Press, 1990.

Flores, Angel.  "Magical Realism in Spanish American Fiction," Hispania, 38 (1955).

Monegal, Rodríguez.  "Lo Real y lo Maravilloso en El Reino de Este Mundo," Revista Iberoamericana, 37(1971).

Posaa-Carbo, Eduardo.  "Fiction as History: The bananeras and Gabriel Garcia Marquez' One Hundred Years of Solitude," Journal of Latin American Studies, 30, 2(1998.

Roh, Franz.   German Art in the 20th Century .  New York: Greenwich, 1968.

Shaw, Donald. A Companion to Modern Spanish American Fiction.  London: Tamesis, 2002.

Toukey, Ann.  "Notes on Involuntary Memory in Proust." The French Review, 42, 3 (Spring, 1974).

Zuluaga, .Conrado.   Puerta abierta a Gabriel Garcia Marquez: aproximacion a la obra del Nobel colombiana.  Barcelona: casiopea, 2001.

 

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